Fortress and Fortifications on Genoese Trade Routes from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea

Genoeses had formed trading colonies, constructed fortresses on the coasts or repaired and used the old castle remains in Mediterranean, Black Sea, Atlantic Ocean and North Europe from 11th to 15th century. There had been many ports on the crossroads of the important trade routes and along the Anatolian coasts.

Amongst these ports, there had been several significant ones as: Yoros Fortress located on a hill at Anadolu Kavağı located on Black Sea entrance of the Bosphorus on Asian side; Galata Tower: Although it is not a fortress, it had an important role in the urban defence system. Amasra Fortress: It had been the centre of trade during Genoese period; Sinop Fortress and Akçakoca Fortress (a.k.a. Genoese Fortress) which had been important in marine and trade; Foça Fortress which had been an important port in trade and defence in Aegean in Genoese period; Çandarlı Fortress which is spectacular and significant in terms of safety.